Text Book on Communication, Diffusion and Adoption of Homestead Technologies
Dr. V.G. Dhulgand
Assistant Professor, Department of Extension Education, Aditya College of Agriculture, Beed, Maharashtra, India
Dr. A.S. Lad
Assistant Professor, Department of Community Extension and Communication Management, College of Community Science, VNMKV, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
Dr. J.M. Deshmukh
Assistant Professor, Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Latur; VNMKV, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
Publication Month and Year: November 2019
E-BOOK ISBN: 978-81-943354-2-9
C-11, 169, Sector-3, Rohini, Delhi, India
Communication in extension is a response to the growing needs of the professional and academic world to make effective the social process but also influence the very pace of development and progress. Our assumption in the book is that the techniques for success lie in the ability to master the art of making effective communication. Beginning with this premise we have attempted to provide the reader with elementary and technical know-how of making effective communication that will have long lasting import.
The purpose of this book is to provide the current information about the communication for community science information to the students of community science and professional workers engaged in the task of development of the rural people. This book, therefore, should be helpful in guiding to all those concern with the task of helping the people for fulfilling. Though, the size of the book has been deliberately kept within limits, the basic information has not been neglected and discussed thoroughly in simple and in lucid language to make it easily under stable to the readers.
The course ‘Communication, Diffusion and Adoption of Homestead Technologies’ has been introduced recently at undergraduate level in the faculty of community science in all agricultural universities in India. We are very happy to let our readers know that the book has been planned to cover the contents of this course in the new curriculum so that this can serve as a text book for the UG community science students. This could also be used as reference book by students at post graduate level in agricultural universities as well as the students in traditional universities undergoing courses on extension education.
We acknowledge valuable contribution of the pioneers whose work has been referred and cited and thank to those who motivated to bring out this publication including the Academic Publications (Delhi) Publications. This book is now in the hands of the users. Critical comments from users on material presented will go a long way in improving the future edition of this book.
Dr. V.G. Dhulgand
Dr. A.S. Lad
Dr. J.M. Deshmukh
2.Elements of Communication Process07-15
3.Models of Communication16-18
4.Feedback in Communication19-22
5.Barriers of Communication23-25
6.Extension Teaching Methods and Audio-Visual Aids26-37
7.Diffusion and Adoption of Innovation38-59
Some Important Terminology67-70
Maharashtra Agricultural Universities Examination Board73-74
Chapter - 1
The word ‘communication’ comes from the Latin word communis, meaning common. This implies that when we communicate, we are trying to establish ‘commonality’ with someone through a message. Communication then, is a conscious attempt to establish commonality over some idea, fact, feelings and the like, with others. In essence, it is a process of getting a source and a receiver tuned together for a particular message or a series of messages.
Defining of Communication
•Communication is anything that conveys meaning that carries a message from one person to another (Brooker, 1949).
•Communication is all of the procedures, by which our mind can affect another (Weaver, 1966).
•Communication is the mutual interchange of ideas by any effective means (Thayer, 1968).
•Communication may be defined as a process by which an individual -the communicator, transmits (usually verbal symbols) to modify the behaviour of other individuals-communicates (Hovland, 1964).
•Communication is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings, or impression in ways that each gains a common understanding of meaning, intent and use of message (Leagans, 1961).
•Communication is the process by which messages are transferred from a source to receiver. (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971).
Difference between Mass and Interpersonal Communication
Sr. No.Mass communicationInterpersonal communication
1)It is directed towards a large, heterogeneous and anonymous audience.It is the communication between two homogeneous persons
2)Messages are transmitted Publically.Messages are transmitted personally
3)It takes more time to understand
understand the message than interpersonal communicationIt takes relatively less time to understand the message than mass
4)It has short term effectIt is lasting for long time.
5)It may involve great expense.It is not so expensive.
6)It covers more audience with short timeOne or two persons are communicated through this.
Purpose/Functions of Communication
The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to environment is information. There must be some information about what is going in the environment which concerns the people. The getting or giving of information underlies all communication functions, either directly or indirectly.
2)Command or Instructive Function
Those who are hierarchically superior in the family, society organization often initiate communication either for the purpose of informing their subordinate or for the purpose of telling them, what to do, how to do, when to do etc. The command and instructive functions of communication are more observable in formal organizations than in informal organization.
3)Influence or Persuasive Function
According to Berlo, the sole purpose of communication is to influence people. Persuasive functions of communication i.e. to induce people are extremely important for extension in changing their behaviours in the desirable direction
A major function of communication is integration or continuously offsetting any disintegration at the interpersonal or at the organizational level. This help to maintain individual, social or organizational stability and identity.
Levels of Communication
According to Thayer, there are four levels of human communication as below
This refers to communicating with one’s self. It leads to organizing and converting sensory data into meaningful messages, having some relevance or utility for an individual’s past, present or future behavior. The psychological system of a human being is constantly engaged in making sense of its environment in the service of that organism, adaptive of goal seeking needs. Communication is continuous process and is determined by an individual’s take into account abilities and take into account susceptibilities. Individuals take into account ability means sequence of the events going on in his internal and external environment. Interpersonal communication mostly occurs in face to face situation. Thus, it offers an opportunity for immediate feedback. Interpersonal communication is a co-function of the individual and what is going on in his environment that was immediate relevance for him.
According to Smith, living is largely a matter of communicating. Thus, it would be difficult to make such sense of people and their behaviour towards one another without taking communication into account. Interpersonal communication should be understood as we understand interpersonal behaviour. People bring expectations to their interpersonal encounters and they also bring expectations about the others expectations. These expectations continuously influence their communication behaviour towards each other and their response to each other. Interpersonal communication viewed as a process of mutual regulation and control.
An organisation is a stable system of individuals who work together to achieve through a hierarchy of ranks and a division of labour, common goals and objectives. Like human beings organizations also establish and maintain themselves through communication with their environments and amongst their parts. So as per the Thayer’s opinion, an organizational communication refers to all of those data flows that serve the organization communication and inter communication process in some way.
This refers to systems developed by each organization to communicate with another organization. However, it must be kept in mind that department or organizations do not intercommunicate as such rather only people do. It would be to our advantage to conceive of inter organizational communication as inter-organizational data transportation linkage. Certainly, communication does not occur between organizations any more than it occurs between people. Communication as contrasted with data generation, dissemination and the acquisition process of intercommunication always occurs within same individual.
Some Concepts Relating to Communication
Gibson defined perception as the process by which an individual maintains contact with environment.
Kollat, Blackwell and Engel explained perception as the process whereby an individual receives stimuli through the various senses and interprets them.
Perception is selective and we perceive what we want to perceive. Perception is influenced by the environment in which communication takes place. It is not the intrinsic quality or attribute of an object, Individual or message, but how people individually and collectively perceive them is important for extension.
According to Berlo, fidelity is the faithful performance of communication process by all its elements, communicator, message, channel and receiver. Noise and fidelity are two sides of the same coin. Eliminating noise increases fidelity and the production of noise reduces fidelity
The communication fidelity can be explained as the extent of desirable changes in receiver’s behaviour as a result of communication. It measures effectiveness of communication process by its entire element.
Gap means the difference between what was intended and what has been obtained or achieved. Communication gap refers to the difference between what was communicated by the extension agent and what has actually been received by the audience. Desirable action by the audience cannot take place if there is a large communication gap. The nature of communication gap may be of two types the message does not reach the target and the message fails to produce the desirable impact, even it reaches the target.
The following steps may be taken for reducing the communication gap
1.Communication must be made available.
2.Communication must be need based.
3.Communication must be in time.
4.Using credible (trustworthy and competent) channels Communication
5.Repeat the message at least thrice. In repetition, some variations may occur but keep the central theme intact.
6.Take precaution against distortion of message (repeat and use printed media)
7.Increase understandability of message.
8.Give complete information.
9.Give new ideas to create and sustain audience interest.
Time Lag in Communication
Lag means delay. There may be delay in getting the relevant information in the form of message and treat the message according to channel requirement and needs of the audience. There may be delay in organizing extension programme.
Empathy is the ability on the part of one person to understand the other person’s internal frame of mind and reference and accept the same. This acceptance does not mean agreement. Empathy is also defined as the ability of an individual to project oneself into the role of another person.
An extension agent who is empathic shall be able to understand the farmer’s situation and communicate with them effectively. Similarly an empathic farmer shall be able to communicate with outsiders.
Frame of Reference
Each person has a stored experience of beliefs and values as an individual and also as a member of the society. This provides the background of stimulation which influences a person’s behaviour in a particular situation and is called the individual’s frame of reference.
Heterophily is the degree to which pairs of individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes such as beliefs, values, education, social status and the like.
Heterophily is opposite of homophily and is defined as the degree to which pairs of individuals who interact are different in certain attributes.
According to Rogers and Shoemaker one of the most obvious and fundamental principles of human communication is that the transfer of ideas most frequently occurs between a source and receiver who are alike similar, homophilous.
Propaganda, Publicity, Persuasion
Propaganda is deliberate manipulation of people’s beliefs, values and behaviour through words, gestures, images, thoughts, music etc.
Publicity is based on truth and propaganda often suppresses the truth.
Persuasion is more democratic in influencing the audience to bring about change in their attitude and behaviour.
Development communication is a communication which is purposive pragmatic, goal directed and audience oriented. This communication is used to inform and motivate all levels and sectors of a poor or developing country to use new skills and equipment in accordance with their needs.
Management Information System
Is a formal system to gather, integrate, compare, analyze and disperse information internal and external to the enterprise in a timely, effective and efficient manner.
A method is a way of doing something an orderly arrangement of set of procedures. Thus it involves a sequence of progressive steps in an orderly and logical regularity in order to accomplish some task or purpose.
An extension teaching method defined as a sequence of progressive steps, undertaken to create situations that are conducive to effective learning.
Chapter - 2
Elements of Communication Process
Successful communication involves six key elements a skillful communicator sending a useful message through proper channels effectively treated to an appropriate audience to evoke the desired response.
In agriculture or rural development extension agent is the communicator who starts the process of communication. Sometimes extension agents, media like radio, T.V are equalized as sources or originators of messages, which is not correct. Knowledge generates through research and as such the research institute, research project, universities are the originators or sources of message. Extension agent obtains the required information from research and carries it to the audience, the farmers. Extension agent is the communicator, a carrier of information. To enhance the process, extension agent may take the help of some aids, known as audio visual aids. They also carry back the reaction of farmer that is feedback to research for solution.
The credibility of agent is important in effective communion Credibility means trustworthiness and competence. Before the audience accepts any message it will judge whether the communicator, the organization, the individual represents, can be relied upon competent enough to give the information. Studies revealed that the scientists and extension agents having status, expertise, accomplishment, authority and experience are perceived as highly credible by the farmers in communicating information on agriculture and rural development.
The Characteristics of Good Communicator
I)The Individual Knows
1.The objectives-specifically defined.
2.The audience, their needs, interests, abilities etc.
3.The message, its content, validity, usefulness, importance.
4.Channels that will reach the audience.
5.Organization and treatment of message.
6.The professional abilities and limitation.
II)He is Interested in
1.The audience and its welfare.
2.The message and how it can help people.
3.The results of communication and their evaluation.
4.The communication process.
5.The communication channels their proper use and limitations
6.Improvement of the communication skill.
1.Plan for communication -a teaching plan.
2.Communication materials and equipment.
3.Plan for evaluation of results.
IV)He has Skill in
3.Expressing message i.e. verbal and written.
4.The selection and use of channels.
5.Understanding the audience.
6.Collecting evidence of results.
On the other Hand, Poor Communicators
1.Fail to have ideas that are really useful to the audience.
2.Fail to give the complete story and show its relationship to people’s problems.
3.Talk while others are not listening.
4.Fail to recognize others view point.
5.Fails to recognize that communication is a two way process.
6.Disregard the values, customs, prejudices and habits of the people.
7.Get for too ahead of audience understanding.
8.To be good communicator, the thumb rule is going to the village and listening to the people.
The recommendations from research, the technology constitute the content or subject matter is the message. Information which is relevant to a particular set of audience constitutes the message, otherwise for them this is noise’. A good message should clearly state what to do, how to do, when to do and what would be the result. To produce desirable changes in human behaviour, the message must be motivating. Message which are relevant, interesting, credible, useful, profitable, latest, best and based on research findings and complete are likely to motivate the people.
A Good Message should be
1.In line with objective to be attained.
2.Clear, understandable by the audience.
3.In line with the mental, physical, social, economic and physical capabilities of the audience.
4.Significant-economically, socially, aesthetically to the needs, interests and values of the audience.
5.Specific -no irrelevant material.
6.Simply stated-covering only one point at a time.
7.Accurate scientifically sound, factual and current.
8.Timely especially when seasonal factors are important and issue are current
9.Supported by factual material.
10.Appropriate to the channel selected.
11.Appealing and attractive to the audience having utility and immediate use.
12.Applicable-can apply recommendations to one’s own particular situation.
13.Adequate combining principle and practice in effective proportion
14.Manageable-can be handed by the communicator and within the limits of time.
Channel of communication constitutes the medium through which information flows from a sender to one or more receiver. That means communicator and receiver are connected through channels. Face to face and word of mouth is the yet simplest and most widely used and effective means of communication particularly for the developing countries. As society changes from traditional to modern, the emphasis shifts from oral to media system of communication. Because of the large number of audience or receivers of information and because of physical distance of the communicator and the receivers of information, it is necessary to use different media of communication. Even in face to face and word of mouth communication, it becomes necessary to use some aids to make communication more effective.
Classification of Channels
1)According to form in which it is used
1.Spoken: e.g. Farm, home, visit, meetings, calls, and radio talks.
2.Written: e.g. Personal letter, farm publication newspaper etc.
3.Visual: e.g. Result demonstration, posters, exhibits. Charts etc.
4.Audio: Visual e.g. Method demonstration, meetings, television etc.
2)According to Nature of Personnel Involved
1.Personal Localite: e.g. Local leaders, belonging receivers own social system
2.Personal Cosmopolite: e.g. Extension agent outside the social system
3.Impersonal Cosmopolite: e.g. Mass media. Outside social system and also no personal face to face contact.
3)According to Nature of Contact with People
1.Individual Contact: e.g. Farm home visit, telephone, calls, personal letters etc.
2.Group Contact: e.g. Group meetings, small group training, field day, study tours, farmers day etc.
3.Mass Contact: e.g. Radio, T.V. exhibitions, rally, campaign, etc.
Many obstructions can enter channels. These are often referred as ‘Noise that prevents the message from being heard by or carried over clearly to the audience. “Noise’ emerges from a wide range of sources and causes as explained below-
1.Failure of a channel to reach the intended audience-All people cannot or may not attend meetings, all people may not have radio or T.V. or may not be tuned if they had, or many people cannot and others may not read the written materials. Failure on the part of the communicator to handle channels skillfully. In meeting, who cannot hear what is said and see what is shown, do not receive the message.
2.Failure to select channel, appropriate to the objective of communicator-If the objective is to show how to do a certain thing, method demonstration and T.V. will be appropriate rather than radio or newspaper
3.Failure to use channels in accordance with the abilities of the audience-Written materials cannot serve as useful channels of communication for an illiterate group of person.
4.Failure to avoid physical distraction-Loud noise near a place of meeting or load shedding at the time of projecting visual may cause distractions of the audience.
5.Failure to an audience to listen or look carefully because of tendency.
6.Failure to use enough channels in parallel or simultaneously. Research indicates that using more than 3 channels in combination is effective in communication
7.Show too many channels in a series. More channels used in series, the less chance of getting message.
To overcome these problems, one should take the following factors into account
1.The specific objective of message.
2.The nature of message-degree of directness versus abstractness, level of difficulty, scope, timing etc.
3.The audience size, need, interest, knowledge of the subject etc.
4.Channels available that will reach the audience, or parts of it.
5.How channels can be combined and used in parallel.
6.Relative cost of channels in relation to anticipated effectiveness
7.Time available to communicator and to the audience.
8.Extent of seeing, hearing or doing that is necessary to get the message through
9.Extent of cumulative effect or impact on the audience necessary to promote action.
4)Treatment of Message
Treatment refers to the manner in which a message is handled to get the information across to an audience. It is related to the techniques or details of procedure or manner of performance essential for effective presentation of the message. Hence, treatment deals with the design of methods for presenting messages. The purpose of treatment is to make the message interesting, clear understandable and realistic to the audience. They must understand its meaning: perceive it as valid in terms of consonance, context, and credibility as well as useful under their own situations.
Designing treatment usually requires original thinking, deep insight into the principles of human behaviour and skill in orienting and using refined techniques of message presentation.
A)Methods of Message Organization
1.Repeat key ideas, important concepts.
2.Compare and contrast important ideas.
3.Present ideas in chronological, logical or psychological sequence.
4.Present one side or both sides of an issue depending on the objectives to be accomplished.
5.Use either factual or emotional appeals or both.
6.Start with strong arguments compared to saving them until the end of presentation.
7.Use inductive or deductive analysis.
8.Draw explicit conclusions for the audience or leave conclusions implicit for the audience to draw.
B)Methods of Getting Attention
1.Intensity a loud noise, a flash of light etc., are fairly reliable stimuli for forcing one to respond.
2.Extensity: The larger the stimulus, the more likely it will be noticed.
3.Movement: Movements, gesture attract attention.
4.Change and contrast: Change in rate of movement, loudness and pitch while communicating a message is likely to attract attention.
5.Some persons, however, are alert to any communication while others are quite selective.
C)Methods of Speaking
1.Limit the scope of presentation to a few ideas at a time. Presenting too many ideas at one time, by one speaker is confusing.
2.Be yourself, try to be specific rather than vague, be accurate, up to date and timely.
3.Do not read your speech. You should appear to be talking with audience. You should know a subject very well.
4.Know the audience. Each audience has its own personality. The audience must feel that you know and care for them.
6.Keep the communication interesting, by using local proverbs, stories and adding a bit of humor and personal touch.
An audience or receiver is the intended recipient/consumer of message. In good communication the audience aimed at is already identified by the communicator. An audience may consist of a single person or number of persons. It may comprise men, women and youth. An audience may be formed according to occupation groups such as crop farmers, fruit farmers, dairymen, poultry keepers, fish farmers, home makers etc. Audience may also be categorized according to farm size such as marginal, small, medium or big farmers or according to whether they belong to schedule caste, scheduled tribe etc.
The communicator should, therefore, be careful in selecting message which is relevant to the audience, choose channels compatible to their cultural pattern and make treatment of the message appropriate to their levels of interest and understanding.
It may be noted that the audience is not a passive recipient of massage. The individuals are rather selective in receiving, processing and interpreting messages.
People expose themselves to messages relatively more to those items of communication that are in agreement with their ideas, belief, values etc. This tendency is called as selective exposure.
Individual’s perceptions of a certain event, issue, person or place could be influenced by ones latent beliefs, attitudes, wants, needs or other factors, called selective perception.
All information is not retained by the individual People generally to retain that information in which they have some interest and which they consider to be important. This tendency of individual is called selective retention
Response of the audience is the ultimate objective of any communication function. Response of an audience to messages received may be in the form of some kind of action, mental or physical. Until the desired action results, extension communication does not achieve it’s most essential objective. The possible kinds of response to message received are almost infinite.
The audience response in the shape of desirable action is needed in the form of free feedback. The following gives an idea of the possible variety in response that may result on receiving a message from typical farm population.
1.Mass communication intensifies propaganda conflicts
2.Much available information is imperfectly absorbed
3.Lack of primary experience affects communication
4.Communication builds on existing attitudes
5.Mass communication increases the communality of experience
6.Communication devices have the ability for thought control
7.Books, Newspapers, Magazines and Leaflets have effects like instrumental, prestige, reinforcement, enriched aesthetic experience and respite.
1)Understanding vs. Knowledge
Communicative efforts often fail because they step simply with the laying of facts, before people & do not continue in a systematic way to promote an understanding of the facts presented. People usually do not act on facts alone, but only when an understanding of the facts gained communication must promote understanding through effective free feedback so as to remove all barriers between the sender and the receiver.
2)Acceptance vs. Rejection
An alert and thinking human mind requires that the facts should understand before they are accepted. Mental acceptance proceeds the resorting to physical action. It is what human beings come to believe, why they merely know that determines, what they do when they are free to act as they choose. Feedback is most essential to help them act in a right way.
3)Remembering vs. Forgetting
When opportunity for an action is not immediately available what learned may be forgotten through delayed action. This basic principle has extensive implications for training extension personnel transmitting the right message to the right people at the right time is often a crucial factor in successful communication with the help of free feedback to an extent is possible.
4)Mental vs. Physical Action
Change in the mind of a man must always precede change in the action of his hands. A message suggesting physical action could end with the source. So feedback is most essential to remove barrier, in adoption of farm innovations.
5)Right vs. Wrong
The intent of communication is to promote desirable action by an audience as determined by the communication and expressed in his objectives. For a variety of reasons, farm people fail to behave precisely according to instructions even when they have understood and accepted them. Whether as individuals or groups, human beings have their own idea about how to act.
Chapter - 3
Models of Communication
According to Aristotle, communication has three ingredients
1.Speaker-the person who speaks
2.Speech-the speech that the individual produces
3.Audience-the person who listens
The Shannon-weaver (1949) model is consistent with Aristotle’s proposition. According to them, the ingredients of communication are:
As compare to Aristotle’s model, the source is the speaker the signal is the speech and the destination is the audience. Plus two added ingredients, a transmitter which sends out the source’s message and receiver which catches the message for the destination.
According to Berlo (1960) the model of communication consists of
Code is the system of signals for communication. Encode means to put the message into code or cipher. Channel means the medium through which the signals move, the decoder means which converts the message in the code into ordinary language which may be easily understood.
According to Schramm (1961), the communication process involves –
In human communication it is most important whether people can properly encode or decode the signal and how they interpret it in their own situations.
The communication model forwarded by Leagans (1963) has the following elements-
The task of communication according to him is to provide powerful incentives for change. Success at this task requires thorough understanding of the six elements of communication, a skillful communicator sending useful message effectively treated, to an appropriate audience that responds as desired.
6)Rogers and Shoemaker’s Model
Rogers and shoemaker (1971) thought of the communication process in terms of the S-M-C-R-E model, the components of which are-
Communication is the process by which messages are transferred from source to receiver. In extension education, it refers to the process of transferring an idea, skill or attitude from one person to another accurately and satisfactorily. A simple model i.e. SMCRE model consists of following elements.
It is the point of origin of the message. The person who starts the process of communication is also called as communicator. The Communicator decides what message is to be sent, how to treat it, what channel, to use and which receivers to reach.
A message is the information that communicator wishes his audience to receive, understand, accept and act upon. The message may be information instructions or orders.
It is anything used by a communicator of messages to connect him With the intended receivers. In extension these are the methods used by the extension workers. It may be a letter, meeting, radio, or newspaper through which the communicator reaches the receivers.
Receivers are the intended audience to messages. They are the consumer of messages. The communicator should identify and aim his message towards his intended audience.
Effect is the response by the audience to the message received by them. This may be some kind of mental or physical action. The action should be viewed as a product of the communication process.
Chapter - 4
Feedback in Communication
When an individual communicates with him, the message he encodes is feed back into his system by the decoding system. In other words action-reaction interdependence in communication is referred to as feedback. Communication often involves an action-reaction interdependence. The communicator can use the reaction of the receiver as a check of his own effectiveness and a guide to his own future action. When a source receives feedback that is rewarding, he continues to produce the same kind of message. When he gets non rewarding feedback, he eventually will change his message.
For effective communication feedback, is of paramount importance. Feedback is error-correcting mechanism than can overcome noise. The term feedback means a special aspect of receiver reaction. Feedback provides the sources with information concerning his success in accomplishing his objective. In doing this it exerts control over future messages.
Reactions serve as feedback. They allow the source or receiver to check up on himself, to determine how well he is doing in accomplishing his purpose. Extension communication is never complete without feedback information. Feedback means carrying some significant response of the audience back to the communicator. Feedback should be a continuous process as the audience and communicator are neither always the same person nor they are interacting in the same situation.
The extension agent shall take steps to analyze the response of the audience, which may be positive negative o no response. If there has been no response or negative response to a message, the extension agent shall find out reasons for the same. If it pertains to research, the problem should be referred as feedback, information to research, to find out solutions for the same.
If problem does not relate to research, the extension agent shall find out whether the message has been relevant to the audience or whether the channel, treatment, audio-visual aids have been appropriately used. If not corrective steps should be taken without any loss of time for a season bound program. If nothing can be done in that particular season, the extension agent shall take appropriate step next season, so that the mistakes are not repeated. If there has been a favorable response to the message by the audience, the extension agent shall find out what next is to be done to reinforce the learning already made by the farmers. At this stage, supply of critical inputs and services including credits are important.
Adequate and correct feedback is essential for purposeful communication. Feedback information provides the communicator or an opportunity to take corrective steps in communication work, helps in identifying subsequent activities and acts as a pathfinder for need be research.
1)Feedback Affects the Source
We often overlook the power of feedback to affect the source. We fail to realize the extent to which the feedback affects the communicate. When feedback indicates that the receivers do not comprehending he repeats. In the case of mass media, drastic changes are made as a result of the feedback obtained in the form of opinion polls, attitude surveys etc.
2)Feedback Exerts Control over Future Messages
Feedback provides the source with information concerning his success in accomplishing his objectives. In doing this, it exerts control ever future messages which the source is likely to encode. Thus, a communicator is always trying to adjust his message to suit the needs of his receivers
3)Feedback Affects Communication Fidelity
Communication research bears testimony that learners perceive, better, gain more knowledge, retain longer when opportunities for feedback is provided in a communication situation. Thus feedback increases the accuracy with which information is transmitted. Sender experience more than receiver experience in improved accuracy of communication
4)Feedback Varies In Different Communication Situations
We can separate one communication situation from another in terms of the feedback obtained.
Person to person communication permits maximum feedback. All available channels can operate. The source has an opportunity to change his message on the spot as a result of the feedback he gets.
On the other hand, communication through mass media has minimum opportunities for feedback. The source and the receiver are separated in time and space. They have little opportunity to get immediate feedback from the responses of the other.
5)Feedback Is Source Oriented
The concept of feedback is usually source oriented rather than receiver oriented or process oriented. When we speak of the receiver’s response as feedback for the source, we are observing the communication situation from the point of view of the source.
6)Feedback Increases Confidence
Feedback increases receiver’s and sender’s confidence in what they have accomplished. On the other hand, zero feedback engenders some hostility in the receiver that becomes clearly perceptible when the situation changes to free feedback. Lack of any feedback also engenders doubt in the sender.
Findings of communication research prove that free feedback is an aid to accuracy in interpersonal communication. The presence or absence of feedback affects the sender receiver relationship. Lack of feedback is accompanied by low confidence and hostility. Free feedback is accompanied by high confidence and amity.
Role of Feedback in Extension Education
Effective feedback promotes understanding, encourage acceptance and persuades the adoption of the message. Feedback helps in the learning process by playing following roles
Feedback establishes rapport between sender and receiver. It enhances confidence of both. Absence of feedback may rise to doubt in the minds of sender as well as receiver.
2)Removes the Barriers
Many time there is doubt in receivers mind while adopting the message. This is due to lack of resources and fear of risk. A good feedback system helps in removing the mental barrier and provides the clarity of message.
3)Facilitates Proper Action
Channel noise is the main factor in transferring messages to the intended audience. People often fail to behave according to instruction; even they understand and accept them due to many reasons. So good feedback system facilitate proper action in communication process.
For successful communication transmission of right message to right people at right time is necessary. With the help of feedback it is possible to do it to the extent possible. When opportunity for action is not available or action is delayed due to some reason, the factor forgetting influence the kind and extent of action. Feedback in the form of action is the indicator of extent of learning that has taken place.
5)Increase the Accuracy of the Message
A completion of circuit increases the accuracy of the message. In free feedback source got desirable action by receiver. For accurate message one can get better desirable action.
Feedback increases the accuracy of message and also removes barriers for better communication. When the source receives positive feedback, he will continue communication process. If the source receives non rewarding response, he will stop the process and identify the factors affecting communication process with the help of feedback.
7)Rectifies Transmission Errors
By minimizing transmission errors, accuracy of message is increased with the help of feedback. As feedback will help the sender to know the receiver has received the message, he can detect the distortions of the message due to transmission errors, and rectify these, accordingly
According to sociologists these responses are communicated through various ways. So that many of them suggested a different model of communication for convenience of transferring message.
Chapter - 5
Barriers of Communication
Transmitting information telling something to someone is a primary function of communication. In public speaking success often is determined by the speaker’s ability to convey information to an audience clearly, accurately and in a manner that will hold interest and attention. Whether the listener grasps the information contained in the presentation is affected by the process and nature of communication. In between the communicator and the receiver there are certain barriers that considerably affect the quality of information transmission.
Communication system plays an important role in the rapid growth of sustainable agriculture. It is the vital bridge that carries the results of research from the laboratory to the field. A steady flow of accurate, understandable and Tactual information links the scientists with the farmers.
However, there are some communication barriers which restrict successful and effective communication of new ideas, they are:
1)Barriers Pertaining to Communicator
1.He disregards the values and customs of the audience due to social status differences.
2.He has less knowledge about the message itself, its validity and usefulness.
3.Lack of knowledge about people, their need, interest and ability.
4.He has little knowledge of the method of communication.
2)Barriers Pertaining to Message
1.If the message is irrelevant, complex, unattractive and not clear and applicable.
2.If message conflicts with the major values of the audience.
3.If the message is not in line with peoples local skills and resources.
4.If message does not have a frame of references with the previous knowledge.
3)Barriers Pertaining to Audience
1.Audience does not have self-interest.
2.He does not understand the importance of communication.
3.He is tradition bound and does not adopt new technology easily.
4.Most of the audience are fatalistic and do not believe in skill and knowledge.
Some of the major and general barriers are discussed below.
1)Filtering or Restricting Communication
Because of the many other concerns which constantly influence our ability to concentrate on what we hear, the average listener will normally ‘filter out’ certain things that he hears. They will simply ignore a point made by the speaker, as though it had never been presented. This can be deliberate or unintended. In downward communication a superior may withhold a part of the information from his subordinates under the belief that they do not need it. Similarly, in upward communication, the subordinate may omit unfavorable parts of the information, which he thinks will not be liked by his superiors. This is called information filtering. Most people do not want to be the bearer of bad news or reveal their mistakes to their boss.
2)Distortion or Different Backgrounds
For some reason, the human mind can also distort what it hears. It is an entirely unconscious process. Every person tends to remember best what agrees with his own values. One differently; each individual uses his own frame of reason for distortion of meaning is that different individuals often interpret the same communication reference. This frame of reference is based on particular past experience and knowledge.
3)Communication Overload or Poor Retention
Our information without showing strain. This ability can vary with different individuals. Overloading the system minds can receive and retain only a limited amount of will in effect blows the mental fuse and defensively shutdown the communication process. Studies show that employees retain only 50% of communicated information.
Another common barrier is that many receivers simply do not pay attention to the message. Paying attention for longer is difficult. This is inherent psychological phenomenon.
5)Absence of Redundancy
It is the use of repetition. Even under the best conditions an audience can have problems grasping or fully appreciating the significance of something new which has been presented to them. By repeating it, or by illustrating or by restating the same point in different ways a speaker can make it easier for an audience to understand and retain the information.
Again the feedback systems constituting interpersonal communication commonly show high consistent regularities. For example, the participants in a two way communication regularly alternate as source and the receiver and certain linguistic forms like questions are followed by a certain type of content, namely, answers, with a frequency not attributable to chance, such order lines in the sequence of interaction is also called redundancy.
In a large-scale enterprise where the chain of command is too long or the span of control too big, communication will be poor.
7)Distrust of Communicator
Some executives are noted for their habit to counterman or modify their original communications. Such executives invariably lose the trust and confidence of their subordinate. Distrust acts as a barrier to communication.
Often, occupation or social groups develop their own terminology or in group language. This special language though, provides a means for precise and quick communication within the group creates severe communication breakdown when out siders or other groups are involved. There are other barriers also in addition to these main constraints which can be enumerated as;
9)Antagonistic attitude of both communicator and audience.
10)Transformation of technical words.
13)Individual factors of ability to tackle problem.
Chapter - 6
Extension Teaching Methods and Audio-Visual Aids
•An extension teaching methods are basically the educational or instructional methods.
•Extension teaching methods are the devices used to create situation in which communication can take place between an instructor & learner.
•The extension-teaching methods are the tools & techniques used to create situations in which communication can take place between the rural people & the extension workers.
They are the methods of extending new knowledge & skills to the rural people by drawing their attention towards them, arousing their interest & helping them to have a successful experience of the new practice. A proper understanding of these methods & their selection for a particular type of work are necessary.
Importance of Extension Teaching Methods
An extension teaching method may, then, be defined as a sequence of progressive steps, undertaken to create situations that are conducive to effective learning. They are important for following reasons.
1.To provide communication so that the learner may see, hear and do the things to be learnt.
2.To provide stimulation that causes the desired mental and or physical action on the part of the learner.
3.To take the learner through one or more steps of teaching-learning process, viz. attention, interest, desire, conviction, action and satisfaction.
4.To reach mass public within a short time.
5.To transfer of technology to the beneficiaries.
Classification of Extension Teaching Methods
A)According to Use
One way of classifying the extension methods is according to their use & nature of contact. In other words, whether they are used for contacting people individually, in groups or in masses. Based upon the nature of contact, they are divided into individual, group & mass- contact methods.
Extension methods under this category provide opportunities for face-to-face or person-to-person contact between the rural people & the extension workers. These methods are very effective in teaching new skills & creating goodwill between farmers & the extension workers.
Under this category, the rural people or farmers are contacted in a group which usually consists of 20 to 25 persons. These groups are usually formed around a common interest. These methods also involve a face-to-face contact with the people & provide an opportunity for the exchange of ideas, for discussions on problems & technical recommendations & finally for deciding the future course of action.
3)Mass or Community-Contact Method
An extension worker has to approach a large number of people for disseminating new information & helping them to use it. This can be done through mass-contact methods conveniently. These methods are more useful for making people aware of the new agricultural technology quickly.
Important extension-teaching methods under these 3 categories are listed in the following chart. 1.
Individual ContactsGroup ContactsMass Contacts
1.Farm & home visits1.Method demonstration1.Bulletins
2.Office calls2.Result demonstration2.Leaflets
3.Telephone calls3.National demonstration3.Circular
4.Personal letters4.Leader-training meetings4.letters
5.Conferences & discussion meetings5.Radio
B)According to Form
Extension-teaching methods are also classified according to their forms, such as written, spoken, visual & audio-visual. Some of the important methods under each of these 3 categories are given in Chart 2.
Classification of extension-teaching methods according to their form
WrittenSpokenObjective or VisualSpoken and Visual
1.Bulletins1.General & special meetings1.Result demonstration1.Method demonstration
2.Leaflets2.Farm & home visits2.Posters2.Meeting at result demonstration
3.Folders3.Official calls3.Motion-picture or movies, charts3. Visual Aids (Motion Pictures,
4.News articles4.Telephone calls4.Slides & film-strips4.Chart and other visual aids)
While using the foregoing method the extension worker use these methods independently or takes the help of certain audio-visual aids. The word audio-visual aid comprises three words viz.
•Audio- refers to sense of hearing
•Visual- refers to sense of seeing
The audio-visual aids are classified in two ways:
A)According to form
1.Radio1.Flash card1.Cinema Projector
2.Tape recorder2.Black board2.Television
4.Public address System4.Photo-graphs4.Puppet show
B)According to projection
Another method of classification is to divide the aids into projected and non-projected aids
Projected AidsNon- Projected Aids
1.Cinema Projector1.Flash cards1.Model
2.Slide projector2.Flannel Graphs2.Posters
1)Individual Contact Methods
The extension agent communicates with the people individually contacting one person at a time. These methods are used when there are a limited number of people to be contacted and are residing in close proximity and when extension agent has sufficient time for contacting them.
1.Individual methods help the extension agent in building good rapport with clientele.
2.Facilitates gaining first-hand knowledge of farm and home and the situation of farmer.
3.Helps in selecting local leaders and demonstrator farmer.
4.Attitude of the people could be changed by individual contact
5.Complex practices could be taught.
6.Facilitates convincing the people for transfer of technology.
7.Enhances effectiveness of group and mass methods.
8.Facilitates in getting first hand feedback information, which may help for effective transfer of technology.
Individual method is labour intensive extension. According to Bruce (1986) the benefits of this method are:
a)Closer supervision of clients, with a capability for spotting problems, and doing so quickly.
b)Quicker intervention to deal with the problems spotted.
c)Closer interaction with clients, presumably leading to better rapport and to feelings of support.
1.This method is costlier and time consuming.
2.Coverage of audience is limited.
3.Extension agent may discriminate among farmers by developing favorable attitude towards some and unfavorable towards others.
2)Group Contact Methods
Group comprises two or more people having reciprocal relations. Group requires plurality of actors and mutual relation either direct or indirect. Moreover groin goal which is shared in common by the members. A group may be defined as an aggregate of number of reciprocal communication and interaction around some common interest. In this method, the extension method, the extension agent communicates with the people in groups and not as individual persons. This method is adopted when it is necessary to communicate with a number of people simultaneously. Group method is used when group members are located not far away from the communicator, and reasonably good time is available for communication. In group method active participation of members is required for effective teaching. The size of a small group may be from 15 to 25, medium group from 26 to 50 and a large group from 51 to 100 persons. The restriction of number of members is not strict ion bonding. This is a rough classification of groups based on size.
1.Group method enables the extension agents to have face-to-face contact with a number of people at a time.
2.Extension agent can reach a selected part of the target group.
3.Facilitates sharing of knowledge and experience and thereby strengths learning of the group members.
4.Group method offers opportunities for interaction and feedback.
5.Satisfies the basic urge of people for social contacts.
6.It motivates people to accept change due to group influence.
7.More effective than mass method in stimulating action.
8.Less expensive than individual method due to more coverage.
1.Group approach may create difficulty in teaching learning process due to widely diversified interest of group members.
2.Holding the meeting may be regarded as an objective in itself, and no or little attention may be paid to learning objectives.
3.Vested interests, caste groups and village factions may hinder free interaction and decision making by the group members.
4.Farmers may not be able to join the group during busy season.
Group Discussion Technique
Following are the different types of group discussion. All of these may not be used for extension education but informal education.
It is a method of verbal presentation of a topic by speaker to a group of audience. The objectives of lecture should be clear to the speaker. Lecture should be well organized and well prepared so that it can draw attention of the audience and convey the knowledge to them. Visual aide may be used during the talk. The lecture should end with question-answer session. A series of lectures on a particular topic shall facilitate gaining adequate knowledge on the topic. Lecture facilitates presentation of information in systematic way. The chief limitation in lecture method is the passive role of the audience. To avoid this, involving learners in discussion or asking them questions during the lecture is necessary. Instead of one-way communication from lecturer to learner, the lecture should be interactive in nature. Interactive lectures stimulate interest among learners.
It is a meeting in which a small number of resource persons present short papers on a given topic. Each one speaks for a definite period of time and presents a different phase or sub-division of a general topic. The speaker is of approximately equal ability to avoid domination by a speaker or giving the audience a distorted view of the subject. Interaction with the audience is not expected. Symposium is primarily meant for information gathering at the professional level.
A panel or a group of three or four experts in a specific area of specialization may be invited to address a group of trainees on a particular subject. The mutual interactions of the panelists among themselves and with the audience can lead to an effective understanding of the topic. A panel discussion should be guided by a strong moderator to ensure enough time to each panelist, to question-answer session and to sum up the entire proceedings.
The common pattern is to have two teams, one representing the affirmative, and other the negative side of the question. Usually there are two speakers in each side. Each speaker is given a definite time to make his main speech and rebuttal after the main speeches have been completed. In this case, there is a two-way communication between the debaters, but one-way communication for the audience. The range of subjects for debates is limited to controversial topics. The big advantage in a debate is that more than one side of a question is presented. However, there is one danger, if it is a decision debate; there is the temptation for motive to win the debate by any means may lead to the debate to become highly antagonistic. In such a case, the distortion of information, ignoring the primary need to inform the audience. This objection to the debate is overcome by holding non-decision debates or by having forum after the debate.
It is a discussion period that may follow any one of the above method of presentation. It consists of question period in which members of the audience may ask questions or wake brief statements. The forum provides an opportunity for the audience to clear up obscure points and to rise questions for additional information. It also gives individual an opportunity to state briefly their understanding of point and see whether they have interpreted correctly the material presented. It is primarily a means of understanding information.
6)Buzz Group (Phillips 66)
With large groups when there is limited time for discussion, the audience may be divided into smaller units for a short period. This is called ‘buzz session’ or ‘hurdle system’ or ‘Phillips 66’. The main purpose is to facilitate the involvement of every member. Groups of six-eight persons get together after receiving instructions to discuss about specific issue assigned. The secretary of each small group will report the findings or questions to the entire audience when they are reassembled. This is actually a device to get more people to participate in a forum than would be the case otherwise.
It is essentially a long meeting from one day to several weeks, involving all the delegates in which the problems being discussed are considered by delegates in small private groups. There must be a planning session where all are involved in the beginning. There must be considerable time for work sessions. There must be a summarizing and evaluation sessions at the close. The workshop as the name implies must produce something in the end a report, publication, a visual or any other material objects. In workshop method, the participants exchange ideas experiences and skills, and on this basis produce a product or prepare a programme for future action. It helps in correctly doing a job and proper shaping of an action oriented programme.
It is a type of small group interaction designed to encourage the free introduction of ideas on an unrestricted basis and without any limitations to feasibility. It is a form of thinking in which judicious reasoning gives way to creative initiative. Participants are encouraged to list for period of time all the ideas that come to their minds regarding some problem and are asked not to judge the outcome. At a later period all the contributions will be sorted out, evaluated and perhaps adopted later.
It is one of the most important forms of group discussion and is more formal in nature. The seminar enables a study in depth to be made in specific areas under the guidance of experts. In seminar, the discussion papers prepared by the participants on the basis of their study and research are presented, and discussion is based primarily on these papers. A seminar may have one or more plenary sessions. This method has the advantage of pooling together the opinion of a large number of persons. At the end, conclusions and recommendations are arrived at, for taking action.
A conference is a gathering of people for a brief period for intensive discussions. Pooling of experiences and opinions among a group of people who have special qualifications in an area. Conference is a large event for large gathering of hundreds or even thousands of people, to engage in a discussion with the aim of accomplishing limited task within a limited period of time. Conference may involve complex social programmes, exhibitions and displays. The word ‘convention’ and ‘congress’ are used with the same meaning.
3)Mass Contact Methods
In these methods, the extension agent communication with a vast and heterogeneous mass of people, without taking into consideration their individual or group identity. The normal group boundary gets disappeared.
This method is followed where a large and widely dispersed audience is to be communicated within a short time. There may be a few communicators such as the extension agent and some subject matter specialists. The size of the audience may be a few hundreds in mass meeting, few thousands in campaign and exhibition and millions in newspaper, radio and television. Mass contact methods are useful at awareness state in adoption process. A large number of people separated apart can be made aware of an idea or innovation. This is cheaper method.
1.Suitable for creating general awareness amongst the people.
2.Helps in transferring knowledge and, forming or changing opinions.
3.Large number of people may be communicated within a short time.
4.Facilitates quick communication in times of emergency.
5.Reinforces previous learning.
6.Less expensive due to more coverage.
7.Variety of media are available including modern ones to reach to a mass of people.
8.Enables extension agency to reach to audience a distant and remote places through media.
1.Less intensive method.
2.Little opportunity for interaction with and amongst the audience.
3.Generalized recommendations hinder application by individuals.
4.Little or no control over the responses of the audience.
5.Difficulty in getting feedback information and evaluation of results.
Media Mix Strategies
Studies show that people are influenced by extension education to make changes in their behaviour in proportion to the number of teaching methods used. If widespread response is desired, people must be exposed to teaching in several ways. The following statistic will further support the arrangement for a combination of extension methods.
1.20 per cent of what they HEAR.
2.30 per cent of what they SEE.
3.50 per cent of what they SEE and HEAR.
4.80 per cent of what they SAY.
5.90 per cent of what they SAY and DO.
Therefore, if widespread response is desired, people must be exposed to teaching effort in several different ways. It is also proved that combined use of several different methods is of the utmost importance in extension teaching. As the number of methods of exposure to extension information increases from 1 to 9, the number of farm families changing behaviour increases from 35 to 98%. The adoption rate and percentage of practices was high when more than five methods were used as compared to single and two to five methods.
Factors Affecting Selection and Use of Teaching Methods
A)Individual and Collective Difference
Every person is different in their knowledge, skills and attitude and their position in diffusion process and adoption categories. People have difference in their age, education, income, social status, values and beliefs. Some people are fast to adopt change where as other slow to adopt change. Some are eye-minded while others are ear-minded. These differences in people influence the selection of teaching methods.
People who are uneducated and have low income may influenced by personal visit or result demonstration. Whereas people who are educated may be influenced by written materials, exhibitions, group discussions etc.
B)Size of Audience
Size of audience: Size of the audience also influences the selection of teaching method. Group discussion cannot be conducted effectively when the size of the group is more than thirty. Lecture should be organized for relatively large number of audience. Radio and television can be used for mass of audience.
2)The Teaching Objectives
Selection of teaching method it also depends on type of teaching objectives which we want to achieve. For bringing change in the knowledge or giving information a large number of people in this condition mass media will be more effective. If you want to teach a new skill to the people for that purpose method demonstration will be appropriate and for changing the attitude of people we should use group discussion.
3)The Subject Matter
If the idea which is introduced to people is simple or familiar to people then news article, circular letter or radio will be effective, whereas complex or unfamiliar practice require face to face meeting, audio-visual aids written material etc.
4)The Stage of Development of Extension Organization
If the extension service is new in the village then selection of method should be such that which is attract people and able to gain their confidence like result demonstration. If the extension service is well established in the village and people have confidence on them than local illustration of adoption by village leaders will be sufficient.
5)Size of Extension Staff
If there is large number of extension staff then direct or individual contact methods are best to influence people.
6)The Availability of Certain Communication Media:
Availability of media to the people such as newspaper, television, radio, telephone etc., also influences the selection of teaching method.
7)The Relative Cost of the Method
The cost of teaching method and the change it will it bring in people also have relation to each other should be considered while selecting teaching method.
8)The Extension Worker’s Familiarity
Familiarity, knowledge and skill of extension worker about a particular method also influence the selection of teaching method.
9)Basic Facilities Needed
Some methods need electricity, dark room, projection screens, projectors etc. Hence certain methods can only be used if such facilities are available at a place and time when needed.
10)Nature of Extension Teaching Method
Each extension teaching method is unique in itself as well as possesses some characteristics in common with several other methods. Hence, an adequate understanding about the nature of each method is necessary for its effective create interest could include photographs, demonstration use. Methods that may be used to attract attention and news stories, hoarding, posters, radio talks, tele-programmes, exhibits, circular letters, real objects, tours, media forums, extension publications etc. Methods used to skills may include demonstrations, farm and home and home visits, training meetings, campaigns, specially prepared movies tele-programmes etc. Methods that inspire action on the part of farmers may include farm and home visits, farmer’s calls, agricultural clinics, group meetings, demonstration, farm tours, media forum, campaign, farmer’s fairs etc.
B)Combination of Methods
Extension field studies conducted in U.S.A. over a long period of years show that people are influenced by extension education to make changes in behaviour in proportion to the number of different teaching methods used. As the number of methods of exposure to extension information increases from 1 to 9, the number of farm families changing behavior increases from 35 to 98%. Hence, if widespread response is desired, people must be exposed to teaching effort in several different ways. (I.e. repetition but in a variety of ways).
C)Using the Methods in Proper Sequence
To answer our teaching needs, our extension plans of work must include methods that,
a)Enable our farmers to see, bear and do the thing to be learned.
b)Enable us to reach large number of people.
c)Create confidence building situations.
Our completed plans should provide not only for doing each of these three things but must be so organized that the completed plan, as a unit, does all three of these things. For instance, a personal contact is made through an office call or farm visit. A leader is visited. A demonstration is establishing. A meeting is held to discuss the demonstration. The meeting is advertised by circular letters. A news story is written on the results of the demonstration as seen at the meeting. These happenings and results are broadcast over the radio. Pictures are taken and a ‘slide story’ is shown at meeting. One method helps another, and many of them are used in combination and sequence to repeat the story.
Chapter - 7
Diffusion and Adoption of Innovation
•Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the member of a social system.
•It is a special type of communication concerned with the spread of message that is perceived as new idea.
•In today’s world information technology such as internet and cell phones which combine aspects of mass media and interpersonal channels, represents formidable tools of diffusion.
•It is this “newness” of idea in the message content of communication that gives diffusion its special character.
Element of Diffusion Process
There are the four main elements of the diffusion process.
An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. It matters little; so far as human behaviour is concerned, whether or not an idea is objectively new as measured by the lapse of time since its first use or discovery. The perceived newness of the idea for the individual determines his or her reaction to it. If the idea seems new to the individual, it is an innovation.
Newness is an innovation need not just involve new knowledge. Someone may have known about an innovation for some time but not yet developed a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards it, nor have adopted or rejected it. ‘Newness’ of an innovation may be expressed in term of knowledge, persuasion or a decision to adopt.
Innovations that are perceived by individuals as having greater relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability and less complexity will be adopted more rapidly than other innovation. Past research indicates that these five qualities are the most important characteristic of innovations in explaining the rate of adoption.
An innovation is not necessarily invariant during the process of it diffusion. And adopting an innovation is not necessarily the passive role of just implementing a standard template of the new idea.
Give that an innovation exists: communication must take place if the innovation is to spread.
Diffusion is a type of communication in which the message content that is exchanged in concerned with a new idea. The essence of the diffusion process is the information exchange through which one individual communicates a new idea to one or several others. A
Communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another. The nature of the information-exchange relationship between a pair of individuals determines, the conditions under which source will or will not transmit the innovation to the receiver and the effect of the transfer.
Mass media channels are often most rapid and efficient means to inform an audience of potential adopters about the existence of an innovation. These channels involve a mass medium such as radio, T.V newspaper and so on which enable a source of one or few individuals to reach an audience of many. On the other hand interpersonal channels are more effective in persuading an individual to accept a new idea; especially if the interpersonal channel links two or more individuals are homophilous. This channel involves a face to face exchange between two or more individuals.
Time is a third element in the diffusion process. The inclusion of time as a variable in diffusion research is strengths, but the measurement of the time dimension can be criticized. The time dimension is involved in diffusion,
1.In innovation-decision process by which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation through its adoption or rejection.
2.In the innovativeness of an individual or other unit of adoption that is, the relative earliness/lateness with which an innovation is adopted-compared with other member of a system.
3.In an innovation’s rate of adoption in a system, usually measured as the number of members of the system that adopt the innovation in a given time period.
4)A Social System
A social system is defined as a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal. The members or unit of social system may be individuals, informal group’s organization and or subsystems. All members co-operate at least to the extent of seeking to solve a common problem in order to reach a mutual goal. The sharing of common objective binds the system together.
Diffusion occurs within a social system. The social structure of the system affects the innovations diffusion in several ways. The social system constitutes a boundary within which a innovation diffuses. Here we deal with how the systems social structure affects diffusion it effect of norms on diffusion, the role of opinion leaders and change agents, types of innovation decisions and the consequences of innovation These issues involve relationship between the social system and the diffusion process that occur within it.
An innovation is an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual. If the idea seems new to the individual, it is an innovation.
Perceived Attributes of Innovation
•Attributes are qualities, characteristics or traits possessed by an object.
•An innovation has some qualities or characteristics.
•It is not the intrinsic quality, but the quality or character of the innovation as people see to them, is important for extension.
•The perceived attributes of innovations which are basic to extension are as follows.
Perceived Attributes of Innovation
There are seven perceived attributes of innovation
•Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea is supersedes.
•The degree of relative advantage is often expressed in economic profitability but the relative advantage dimension may be measured in other words.
•E.g. multiple materials which may be used for no of activities have more advantage than an equipment or material which can be used for single purpose.
•Relative advantage is positively related to its state of adoption.
•Compatibility is the degree to which innovation is consistent with the existing values, past experience and needs of the receivers.
•Compatibility ensures greater security and less risk to the receiver and makes the idea more meaningful.
•When a new crop variety suits the agro-climatic condition of farmer it indicates situational compatibility.
•Compatibility is positively correlated with rate of adoption.
•Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.
•More complex a practice and more change its requires, more slowly it will be adopted.
•E.g. Many high yielding technology like a high yielding variety crops, crossbreed cattle are quite complex.
•The complexity of an innovation as perceived by the members of a social system is negatively related to its rate of adoption.
•The degree to which the innovation may be experimented on a limited basis.
•E.g. Farm inputs may be purchased and tried in small units whereas purchase of a farm machinery requires large investments and cant be tried in parts.
•The triability of an innovation, as perceived by members of a social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption.
•The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible.
•The visible impact of an innovation facilitates its diffusion in the social system.
•E.g. Application of balanced or measured seed rate in field has always been recommended to the farmer.
•Observability is positively related to the rate of adoption.
•It refers to the degree of certainty of receiving expected benefits from the adoption of an innovation.
•Innovations are accepted when its results are predictable.
•Predictability is positively related to the rate of adoption.
The innovation –decision process is the process through an individual (or other decision making unit) passes
1.From first knowledge of an innovation.
2.To forming on attitude toward the innovation.
3.To a decision to adopt or reject.
4.To implementation of the new idea.
5.To confirmation of this decision.
•Knowledge occurs when an individual or other decision making unit is exposed to the innovation existence and gains some understanding of now it functions. Knowledge function mainly knows.
•Knowledge seeking is initiated by an individual and greatly influenced by ones predispositions.
•Exposure is selective and generally an individual tends to expose to those ideas which are consistent with ones existing attitudes and beliefs and avoids those which are conflict with them.
•Persuasion occurs when an individual or other decision making unit forms a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward the innovation.
•Persuasion function is mainly affective or relate to feeling.
•There may be two levels of attitudes a specific attitude towards the innovation and general attitude toward change.
•Decision occurs when an individual or decision-making unit engages in activities which lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
•The individual puts the innovation to a small – scale trail in own situation.
•The individual take a decision to adopt or reject the innovation.
•Implementation occurs when an individual or other decision making unit put an innovation into use.
•At this stage the individual is generally concerned with to get the innovation, how to use it and what operational problem will be faced and how these could be solved.
•Implementation may involve change in management of the enterprise and or modification in the innovation suit more and closely to the specific need of the particular person who adopts it.
Confirmation occurs when an individual or other decision making unit seek reinforcement of an innovation- decision already made, but may reverse this previous decision if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
The decision to adopt or reject an innovation is not terminal act human minds is in a dynamic state an individual constantly evaluates situation. If the individual perceives that the innovation is consistently giving satisfactory or unsatisfactory result, the person may continue to adopt reject the innovation as the case may be. Reversal of the decision after adoption or rejection of an innovation may however, take place at a later state.
Rejection May Take Two forms
Which consist of considering adoption of the innovation but the deciding not to adopt it
(Also called non-adoption) which consist of never really considering use of the innovation.
It is a decision to reject an innovation after having previously adopted it. Two forms
Is a decision to reject an idea in order to adopt better idea that supersedes it.
Is a decision to reject an idea as result dissatisfaction with its performance.
Types of Innovation-Decisions
Optional innovation-decisions are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by an individual, independent of the decisions of other members of the system.
Collective innovation-decisions are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by consensus among the members of a system. All of the units in the system usually must conform to the system’s decision, once it is made.
Authority innovation-decisions are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, status, or technical expertise. The individual member of the system has little or no influence in decision making; he or she simply implements the decisions.
These three types of innovation-decisions range on a continuum from optional decisions (where the adopting individual has almost complete responsibility for the decision), through collective decisions (where the individual has a say in the decision), to authority decisions (where the adopting individual has no influence in innovation-decision).
3.Consequences of Innovation
Consequences are the changes that occur to an individual, to a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.
Change agents also give little attention to consequences. They often assume that adoption of a given innovation will produce only beneficial result for adopters. This assumption is the pro-innovation bias. Change agents should recognizes their responsibility for the consequences of innovations that they introduce. They should be able to predict the consequences of innovations that advantages and disadvantages of an innovation before introducing it to their clients.
Consequences are not unidimensional; they can take many forms and are expressed in various way. There are three dimensions of consequences as follow
1)Desirable vs. Undesirable Consequences
Desirable consequences are the functional effects of an innovation for an individual or for a social system. Undesirable consequences are the dysfunctional effects of an innovation to an individual or to a social system. The determinations of whether consequences are functional or dysfunctional depend on how the innovations affect the adopters.
2)Direct vs. Indirect Consequences
Direct consequences are the changes to an individual or a social system that occur in immediate response to an innovation. Indirect consequences are the changes to an individuals or a social system that occur as a result of the direct consequences of an innovation.
3)Anticipated vs. Unanticipated Consequences
Anticipated consequences are changes brought about by innovation that are recognized and intended by the member of a social system. Unanticipated consequences are change from an innovation that are neither intended nor recognized by the members of a social system.
•Wilkening (1956) defined adoption as “a process composed of learning, deciding and acting over a period of time. The adoption of a specific practices is not the result of single decision to act but of a series of actions through decisions”.
•According to Rogers (1962), adoption is a decision to continue full use of an innovation.
•Copp (1958) expressed that the adoption of recommended farm practices has been conceptualized as a latest behavioural predispositions, which is manifested in the acceptance of specific recommended practices. He further, added that adoption could be viewed as a product of the farm operator’s life situation, including such aspects as economic status, social position and characteristics of work orientation.
•Adoption is a decision to make full use of innovation as best course of action available
Stages in Adoption Process
The adoption process may be arbitrarily broken down into stages for conceptual purposes.
This breakdown is
i)Consistent with the nature of the phenomena.
ii)Congruent with previous research findings.
iii)Potentially useful for practical applications.
The adoption process has been depicted in terms of various models varying from three to seven stages. The one advocated by Singh (1965) under Indian conditions consists of seven stages.
These stages are:
1.Need: This is a stage of discontent when an individual wishes to change his existing practices.
2.Awareness: The individual just comes to know about an innovation without knowing the details of it.
3.Interest: He makes an attempt to know more about the innovation.
4.Deliberation: This is a stage of deliberating on “to try or not to try”-(mental evaluation)
5.Trial: An individual uses an innovation in part or sometimes on full scale.
6.Evaluation: The individual evaluates the performances of the innovation.
7.Adoption: It is a decision to use the practices on a continued basis.
The North Central Rural Sociology Subcommittee for the study of Diffusion of Farm Practices (1955) identified five stages of the adoption process.
1.Awareness Stage: At the stage the individual is exposed to the innovation but lacks complete information about it. For instances, he may know only the name and may not know what the idea or product is, what it will do or how it will work. The primary function of the awareness stage is to initiate the sequence of later stage that lead to eventual adoption or rejection of the innovation.
2.Interest Stage: The primary functions of the interest stage in mainly to increase individual’s information about the innovation. The “cognitive” behaviour is involved at the interest stage (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961). At this stage the individual is more psychologically involved with the innovation than at the awareness stage.
The interest stage has been referred to as the “information” stage by Beal and others (1957), as the “knowledge” step by Lavidge and Steiner (1961), and as the “interest information” stage by the North Central Rural Sociology Sub Committee (1961).
3.Evaluation stage: The evaluation stage is probably least distinct of the five adoption stages and empirically one of the most difficult about which to question respondents. At this stage, the individual makes a mental trial of new idea or practices. He applies the information obtained in the previous stages to his own situation.
Other research workers have termed the evaluation stage “application” (Beal and others, 1957; Beal and Rogers (1960), “acceptance” (Copp and others, 1958), “evaluation application-decision” (NCRS subcommittee, 1961), and “Conviction (Rogers and Yost 1960, Rogers and Pitzer, 1960). The evaluation stage, and to some extent the trial stage also, is essentially similar and to the “liking” and “preference” steps of Lavidge and Steiner (1961). All these terms imply that an affective component of behaviour, a favourable of unfavourable feeling toward, the idea, is involved at evaluation stage (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961).
4.Trial Stage: The main function of the trial stage is to demonstrate the new idea in the individual’s own situation and determine its usefulness for possible complete adoption. It is thus a validity test or “dry-run”. Most persons will not adopt an innovation without trying in first on a probationary basis. While rejection of the innovation may occur of any stage in the adoption process, it sometimes happens when the results of the trial stage are misinterpreted.
5.Adoption Stage: At this stage the individual decides to continue full use of the innovation. According to Lavidge and Steiner (1961) the connotative or motivational component of behaviour is involved at the adoption (and trials) stage.
These five stages are not necessarily rigid patterns, which people follow, nor a set of exclusive and discrete categories with no overlap. Rather, they present five sequences that can be clearly identified very frequently by both researchers and farmers. At any stage the recommendation can be thrown off. There can be jumping from one stage to another. If the farmers have confidence in the extension workers, and his recommendation they may jump from “evaluation” to “adoption” stage.
Factors Influencing Adoption Process
Following are the different factors which affect the diffusion and adoption of innovations or new practices;
Community standards and social relationship provide the general framework where in the process of change occurs, and the account for the differences in the communities and groups.
Values may be regarded as goal or objects to which people orient their thinking, action and feelings. In other words the things which are always upheld by the people are the values. People are ready to sacrifice for value. Modern values enhance the rate of adoption and traditional values resist it. In some groups and communities, people place a higher value upon material gains and money than they do in others. In some other groups, changes in farming are encouraged and expected, prestige is attached to the adoption of new ideas and techniques. In other, more value is placed upon tradition and little freedom is allowed for the individual to deviate from the group’s pattern in adopting innovations. Of the adoption of new practices goes contrary to the established customs and tradition of the people, the innovator may be ridiculed or loose prestige.
The extent to which changes are adopted depends on the values and expectations of the group and upon the extent to which the individual is expected to conform. Where there is great emphasis on maintaining traditions and values rooted in the past, change occurs more slowly. On the other hand, where emphasis is upon individualism and personal success, change occurs more rapidly.
The acceptance of change is also influenced by the nature of leadership and control in the group or community. In some communities, none would accept a new idea unless and until the leader in the community supports the idea. Once the leader accepts he would influence all the farmers in the community to accept it. In such situations, it is important to identify and use such influential leaders. The influence of informal leaders is likely to be greater where neighbour, kinship and community ties are the stronger. The opinion leaders or lay leader play significant role in such communities in spreading an innovation.
The nature and extent of social contact within and outside the community is important in the diffusion of new ideas and techniques, indicated below.
I)Nature of Social Contacts
The presence of organizations whose objectives include the promotion of change will aid directly or indirectly in the diffusion process. On the other hand, where social contacts are primarily through kinship, visiting and informal activities, there may be greater resistance to change.
II)Extent of Social Contacts
The extent to which social contacts are confined to the immediate locality is a factor influencing the diffusion of new idea. The broader the social orientation of the people, the more likely they are, to accept new ideas. Only a few individuals may have such outside contacts, but they may be in a position to influence their neighbours and friends. Local orientation on the part of the majority is not necessarily a limiting factor on the diffusion of new ideas, so long as a few leaders have outside contacts. Innovative and progressive farmers keep contact with institutions and information persons outside community. Through these farmers innovations are introduced in the community.
The social distances associated with wide status differences are also a factor in the diffusion of farm innovation through interpersonal channels. For example, tenant farmers in some areas may not get ideas from the large farm owners because of their lack of contact. Also low caste farmers may fail to communicate with high caste farmers. Rigid class structure increasing social distance impairs interclass communication of ideas.
Culture is the total manmade part of man’s environment. Behaviour is often so distinctly modeled in accordance with a cultural pattern. Culture is also a partial determinant of what will be perceived and how including of course the agricultural innovations.
Why some people adopt new ideas and practices more quickly than others relates in part to the individual himself.
Elderly farmers seem to be somewhat less inclined to adopt new practices than younger ones. Highest adoption of practices was found at middle age.
Farmers with high educational level adopt more improved farm and home practices than illiterate farmers.
The important psychological characteristics are rationality, mental flexibility, change proneness and innovation proneness. The farmers who have such characteristics adopt more improved farm practices.
Exposure to reliable sources of farm information may create a state of rationality, which in turn predisposes an individual to the adoption of new practices.
A mentally flexible person has higher adoption rates than one with mental rigidity.
Some people are found to be more prone to change than others. More change prove farmers adopt innovation earlier and more.
Attitude may be thought of as predisposition to act, perceive, think feel in relation something. Favourable attitude may lead acceptance of new idea.
Reasons why farmers adopt farm practices more quickly at one time than another relate to the situation in which they find themselves. The situational factors govern the rate of adoption of agricultural innovations.
High farm income nearly always is associated with high adoption levels. Farmers having more farm income will adopt more farm practices than the farmers with low farm income.
Size of farm is nearly always positively related to the adoption of new farm practices. Farmers with large size farms adopt more advance farm practices than small size holders.
Adoption scores are usually higher for owner farmers than tenant farmers. Owners can make decisions to adopt new farm practices, but tenants must often obtain the concurrence of the owner before trial or use. Consequently, adoption rates are higher for farm owners than those leasing the land.
D)Use of Sources of Information
Farmers using more sources of farm information will adopt more improved agriculture practices than the farmers who do not use or less use of the sources of information.
1.The number of sources used or the number of contacts with information sources is positive related to adoption rate.
2.A highly positive correlation is evident between the use of formal sources as government agency and rate of adoption.
3.High dependence on relatives and friends as sources of information is usually negatively associated with the adoption of new practices.
4.Use of mass media is positively associated with adoption rate of improved practices.
E)Standard of Living
Farmers having higher level of living will adopt more improved farm practices than others whose level of living is low.
F)The Nature of the Practice (Attributes of Innovation)
The speed with which adoption will take place is partly dependent on the nature of practice itself i.e. attributes of innovation.
•Innovativeness is the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the other members of a system.
•Rather than describing an individual as “less innovative than the average member of a social system. “It is more efficient to refer to the individual as being in the late majority or in some other adopter category.
4.Different Term Used in Diffusion of Innovation and Adoption Process
1)Rate of Adoption
•Rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.
•It is generally measured as the number of individuals who adopt a new idea in a specified period, such as each year.
•Sometimes it may happen that people continue to adopt an innovation rather vigorously when expert feel that it should not be done.
•E.g. Excessive use of pesticides.
•Over adoption produces negative effect, and may cause distortion or deterioration of the related system. Insufficient knowledge about an innovation and inability to predict its consequences generally leads to over adoption.
•An uncomfortable state of mind, by reducing or eliminating it.
•An individual seeks to accomplish it by changing ones knowledge, attitudes or actions
•Is a decision not to adopt an innovation.
Rejection May Take Two Forms
•Which consist of considering adoption of the innovation but the deciding not to adopt it.
•(Also called non-adoption) which consist of never really considering use of the innovation.
•It is a decision to reject an innovation after having previously adopted it. Two forms.
•Is a decision to reject an idea in order to adopt better idea that supersedes it.
•Is a decision to reject an idea as result dissatisfaction with its performance.
•All individual in a social system do not adopt an innovation at the same time rather they adopt in ordered time sequence & they may be classified into adopter categories on the basis of when they first begin using new ideas.
•In technology transfer programme, it is of great practical utility for the extension agents to identify the individuals who are likely to adopt innovations early & who may lag behind.
•When the number of individuals adopting a new idea is plotted on frequency basis over time, the resulting distribution is an normal or bell shaped curve.
•When the number of individual adopting a new idea is plotted on cumulative frequency basis over time, the resulting distribution is an S- shaped curve.
•The S-shaped curved rises slowly at first when there are few adopters in a time period, accelerates to a maximum when about half of the individual in the system have adopted & then increases at a gradually slower rate as few remaining individual.
•Finally, S-shaped curve reaches its asymptote, &the diffusion process is finished.
Chart showing the adopter categories and their percentage of population
Sr. No.Adopter CategoriesKnown asPercentage of Population
Chart showing a composite picture of adopter categories
Adopter CategorySalient ValuesPersonal TraitsCommunication BehaviourSocial Relationship
Innovators“Venturesome”; willing to accepts risksYoungest age; highest social status; largest and most specialized operations; wealthyClosest contact with scientific information sources; interaction with other innovators, relatively greatest use of impersonal sourcesSome option leadership; very cosmopolite
Early adopters“Respect”; regarded by many others in the social system as a role- modelHigh social status, large and specialized operationsGreatest contact with change agents and early adoptersGreatest opinion leadership of any category in most social system; very localite
Early majority“Deliberate”; willing to consider innovation only after peers have adoptedAbout average social status; average sized operationConsiderable contact with change agents and early adoptersSome opinion leadership
Late majority“Skeptical”; over whelming pressure from peers needed before adoption occursBelow average social status, small operation; little specialization; small incomeSecure ideas from peers who are mainly late majority or early majority or early majority; less use of mass mediaLittle opinion leadership
Laggards“Tradition”; oriented to the pastLittle specialization; lowest social status; smallest operation; lowest income, oldestNeighbours, friends and relatives with similar values are main information sourceVery little Opinion leadership; semi-isolate
Fig 1: Bell-shaped cumulative curve for an adopter distribution
Distinguishing Characteristics of Adopter Categories
The detailed information on the characteristics of adopter categories is presented below:
Observations have noted that venturesome an obsession with innovators. They are eager to try new ideas. Being an innovator has several prerequisites. These include control of substantial financial resources to absorb understand and apply complex technical knowledge. First people to adopt a new idea, much ahead of other people.
Characteristics of Innovators
1.Have a larger farm, high income and willing to take risk.
2.First to adopt a new idea.
3.Very few in numbers.
4.May deviate from social norms.
5.Cosmopolite in nature.
6.Willing to accept risk.
7.Usually not past middle age.
8.Generally well educated.
9.Have respect and prestige in progressive communities but not in conservative type of communities.
10.Mentally alert and actively seeking new ideas.
11.Their sphere of influence and actively often goes beyond the community boundaries.
12.They have many formal and informal contacts outside the immediate locality.
13.They subscribe to many farm magazines and specialised publications.
2)Early Adopters: Respectable
Early adopters are a more integrated part of the local social system than are innovators. Whereas innovators are cosmopolites, early adopters are localities. This adopter’s category, more than any other, has the greatest degree of opinion leadership in most social system. Potential adopters look to early adopters for advice and information about the innovation. And the early adopters know that he must continue to earn this esteem of his position in the social system is to be maintained.
Characteristics of Early Adopters
1.Younger than those who have a slower adoption rate, but not necessarily younger than the innovators.
2.They are not the persons who test the untried ideas but they are quickest to use tried ideas in their own situations.
3.Have large farms and high income.
4.Higher education than those who adopt more slowly.
5.They participate more in government programmes.
6.They also participate more in social activities of the community.
7.This group usually furnishes a disproportionate amount of the formal leadership
1.They read papers and farms journals and receive more bulletins than people who adopt later.
2.They may be regarded as community adoption leaders.
3)Early Majority: Deliberate
The early majority adopt new ideas just before the average members of a social system. The early majority interact frequently with their peers, but leadership position; are rarely held by them. The early majority’s unique position; between the very early and relatively late to adopt make them an important link in the diffusion process. The early majority may deliberate for some time before completely adopting new ideas. They follow with deliberate willingness in adopting innovations, but seldom leads.
Characteristics of Early Majority
1.Slightly above average age, education and farming experience.
2.Adopt a new idea just before the average members.
3.Take longer time to make the decision to adopt.
4.They take a few more farm journals and bulletins than the averages.
5.Less active in formal groups than early adopters, but more active than those adopting later.
6.They have medium high social and economic status.
7.They also attend extension meetings and farm demonstrations.
8.In many cases, they are not formal leaders in the association.
9.They are most likely to be informal resources than early adopters and innovators, and so cannot afford to make hasty or poor decisions.
10.They associate mainly with people of their own community.
11.They valuate highly the opinions their neighbours and friends hold about item; for this is their main source of status and prestige.
12.They are mostly mentioned as “neighbours and friends” from whom the majority of farmers seek information.
4)Late Majority: Skeptical
The late majority adopt new ideas just after the average number of a social system. Adoption may be both an economic necessity and the answer to increasing social pressures. Innovations are approached with a skeptical and the late majority do not adopt until most other in their social system have done so. They can be persuaded of the utility of new ideas, but the pressure of peer is necessary to motivate adoption.
Characteristics of Late Majority
1.Those in this group have less education and are older than the early majority.
2.Adopt new ideas just after the average members.
3.Low level of education.
4.Depend mostly on localite source of information.
5.They form the major part of formal organisational membership, although they participate less in such formal groups.
6.They take fewer leadership roles than the earlier adopters.
7.They take and read fewer papers, magazines and bulletins, than the early majority.
8.They do not participate in as many activities outside the community as do people that adopt earlier.
Laggards are the last to adopt an innovation. They possess almost no opinion leadership. Decisions are usually made in terms of what has been done in previous generations. This individual interacts primarily with others who have traditional values. When laggards finally adopt an innovation, it may already have been superseded by another more recent idea which the innovations are already using. Laggards tend to be frankly suspicious of innovations, and change agents. Their traditional direction shows the innovation decision process to a crawl. Adoption lags far behind knowledge of the idea.
Characteristics of Laggards
2.Last to adopt innovation.
3.Do not have opinion leadership.
4.Resource poor people.
5.Little land holding.
6.Live in disadvantaged area and having least urban influence.
7.Hardly any contact with outside world.
8.They are more stick up to traditions.
9.Participate least in formal organisations, cooperatives and government programmes.
10.They hardly read farm magazines and bulletins.
11.Less /No mass media exposure.
12.More suspicious about extension workers and change agents.
13.Satisfied with present conditions.
Chapter - 8
Opinion leadership is the degree to which an individual is able to influence informally other individuals’ attitude or overt behaviour in a desired way with relative frequency.
Opinion leaders play an important role in diffusion network. The concept of opinion leadership originated as part of the two step flow model, which hypothesized that communication messages flow from source, via mass media channels to opinion leaders who in turn pass them on to followers. The two step flow model challenged the previous hypodermic needle model, which postulated that the mass media had direct, immediate and powerful effects on individual members of a mass audience. Opinion leaders have greater mass media exposure, more cosmopolitans, greater change agent contact, greater social participation, higher social status and more innovativeness.
Characteristics of Opinion Leaders
1.Opinion leaders have higher socio-economic status.
2.Opinion leaders have more formal education.
3.Opinion leaders have greater degree of mass media exposure.
4.Opinion leaders are more cosmopolite in nature.
5.Opinion leaders have greater contact with change agents.
6.Opinion leaders have greater social participation.
7.When the social system norms favour change, opinion leaders are more innovative, but when the norms do not favour change, opinion leaders are not especially innovative.
Role of Opinion Leader in Rural Development
Since Indian farmers rely predominantly on interpersonal source of information within the village, opinion leaders have a crucial role to play in bringing about technological change in agriculture and also play role in rural development. Their relatively high socio-economic status, ability to take risk, willingness to try out new ideas and wider contact with institutional sources allow them to be among the first in a village to be aware of an innovation and adopt it. Since they are sought by other farmers for information and advice, they act as middlemen who are not only in contact with other members of the social system, but also mediate values of demands of modernization and transmit modern culture and technology to people who are rooted in traditional values and beliefs. They act as key individual in the process by which new ideas enter the social system. By providing information to other cultivators they facilitate the adoption and diffusion of agricultural innovations and in turn agricultural modernization.
These key informants providing different development programme to the farmers with the help of different agencies.
Monomorphic and Polymorphic Opinion Leadership
Is there is one leader for all purpose or are there different opinion leaders for different issue? Polymorphic is the degree to which an individual acts as an opinion leader for a variety of topics) its opposite monomorphism, is the degree to which an individual acts as an opinion leader for only a single topic. The degree of polymorphic opinion leadership in a given social system seems to vary with such factors as the diversity of the topic on which opinion leadership is measured.
A polymorphic leader exerts influence in several spheres of activities while the influence of a monomorphic leader is generally confined to a single sphere. In developed countries, the opinion leadership tends to be monomorphic, with a distinctive leadership structure for each specific sphere of activity. The structure of opinion leadership in traditional societies on the other hand can be expected to be polymorphic.
Chapter - 9
A change agent is an individual who influences clients innovation decision in direction deemed desirable by a change agency.
A change agent usually seeks to secure the adoption of new ideas but he or she may also attempt to slow the diffusion process and prevent the adoption of certain innovations with undesirable effects. Even relatively centralized diffusion system, the long range goal of many change agents is to create conditions in which client can help themselves.
Many different occupations fit our definition of change agent viz. teacher, consultant, public health workers and salespeople. All of these change agents provide a communication link between a source system of some kind and a client system.
Role of the Change Agent
Seven roles can be identified for the change agent in the process of introducing an innovation in a client system.
1)To Develop a Need for Change
A change agent often initially helps clients become aware of need to alter their behaviour. In order to initiate the change process, change agent points out new alternatives to existing problem, dramatizes the importance of these problems and may convince clients that they are capable of confronting these problems. The change agents assess clients need at this stage and also may help to create needs
2)To Establish an Information Exchange Relationship
Once a need for change is created, a change agent must develop rapport with his or her clients. The change agent can enhance relationships with clients by being perceived as credible, competent and trustworthy and by empathizing with clients’ needs and problems.
Client must accept the change agents before they will accept the innovations that he or she promotes. The innovations are judged on the basis of how the change agent is perceived.
3)To Diagnose Problem
The change agent is responsible for analyzing clients’ problems to determine why existing alternatives do not meet their needs. In arriving at such diagnostic conclusions, the change agent must view the situation empathetically from the client’s perspective.
4)To Create an Intent in the Client to Change
After a change agent explores various avenues of action that clients might take to achieve their goals, the change agent seeks to motivate their interests in the innovation.
5)To Translate an Intent to Action
A change agent seeks to influence clients’ behaviour in accordance with recommendations based on the client’s needs. Interpersonal network influences from near-peers are most important at the persuation and decision stages in the innovation decision process. The change agent can operate only indirectly here by working with opinion leaders to activate near-peer networks.
6)To Stabilize Adoption and Prevent Discontinuance
Change agent may effectively stabilize new behaviour through reinforcing messages to clients who have adopted thus “freezing” the new behaviour. This assistance is given when a client is at implementation or confirmation stage in the innovation decision process.
7)To Achieve a Terminal Relationship
The end goal for a change agent is to develop self-renewing behaviour on the part of clients. The change agent should seek to put him or herself out of business by developing the clients’ ability. In other words, the change agents seek to shift the client from a position of reliance on the change agent to one of self-reliance.
Factors affecting the role Performance of Change Agent
1.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to the extent of change agent effort in contacting clients.
2.Change agent successes in securing the adoption of innovations by client is positively related to a client orientation, rather than to a change agency orientation.
3.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to the degree to which a diffusion programme is compatible with client needs.
4.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to empathy with clients.
5.Change agent contact is positively related to higher social status among clients.
6.Change agent contact is positively related to greater social participation
7.Change agent contact is positively related to higher formal education among clients.
8.Change agent contact is positively related to cosmopoliteness among clients.
9.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to homophily with clients.
10.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations is positively related to credibility in the clients’ eyes.
11.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to the extent that he or she works through opinion leader.
12.Change agent success in securing the adoption of innovations by clients is positively related to increasing ability to evaluate innovations.
Quality of Change Agents
1.He must have a rural background.
2.He should be acquainted with the nature of problem and cultural background.
3.He must have adjustability in village circumstances.
4.He must have a thorough knowledge of the subjects.
5.He must be honest, sincere, hard worker and have a general intelligence.
6.He should have self-confidence and good judgment.
7.He should be sympathetic to villagers and also share their joys and sorrows.
8.He should have firm determination to achieve his goal and direct all be efforts in that direction.
9.He should always search out new methods for early and easier achievements of his targets.
10.He should have a burning enthusiasm to speed up change and progress by his activity.
11.He should be prompt and able to influence the villagers in a positive way.
12.He should have vision to frame future plans and programmes for the development of the village.
13.He should be resourceful enough to satisfy the village needs.
14.He should courageous and seek co-operation in meeting a difficult situation.
15.He should be humble, polite and friendly towards the villagers.
16.He should have a selfless nature.
17.He should listen to others, respect their opinion and think over their problems and suggestions carefully.
18.He should hold the ideal of simple living and high thinking.
19.He should be able to guide the villagers and work through their leaders.
20.He should be well acquainted with ways and means of teaching.
21.While talking to villagers, he should let others do most of the talking and enter into conversation only when others seem willing to hear him.
Chapter - 10
Homestead technology means a suitable technology to assist the homemaker in performing jobs inside the house and the adjoining courtyard in an efficient and effective manner.
Specific Areas of Homestead Technology
1.Vegetable preparation-Knives, peelers, slicers, cutters, food processor.
2.Cooking utensils-pressure cooker, rice cooker, non-stick pans, Karahi.
3.Cooking gadget & fuel-smokeless chullah, biogas, solar cooker, electric heater etc.
4.Heating water-geyser, electric rod, solar water heater.
5.Cooking food-cool almirahi, refrigerator.
6.Butter preparation-mixy, madhani, butter churner.
8.Preservation of vegetable & fruit-solar drier.
9.Water storage-cement tank, plastic tank.
10.Water purification-water filter, use of alum, moringa seeds.
11.Washing clothes-washing machine, coal iron
12.Icecream preparation-ice-cream churner, ice-cream maker
Some Important Terminology
1.Adopter categories: are the classifications of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness.
2.Adoption: Is a decision to make full use of new ideas as the best course of action.
3.Adoption process: Mental process through which an individual passes from hearing about an innovation to final adoption. Adoption is decision to continue full use of innovativeness.
4.Audience: An audience or receiver is the intended recipient/consumer of a message.
5.Audio aid: Any instructional device that can be heard, but not seen.
6.Audio visual aids: Any instructional device that can be heard and seen.
7.Brain storming: A techniques of encouraging innovation by a group. Members suggest any ideas for improvement that come into their minds.
8.Bulletin board: Known as tack board is a device specifically set aside for displaying many items of interest of educational value to the intended learners of audience.
9.Campaign: It is an intensive activity undertaken at an opportune time for a brief period, focusing attention in a concerted manner on a particular problem, with a view to stimulate the widest possible interest in a community, block or geographical area.
10.Channel: The actual means by which the message is transmitted to the receiver (Visual, audio, written, or some combination of the three) is called the channel.
11.Change agent: A change agent is an individual who influences clients innovation decision in direction deemed desirable by a change agency.
12.Circular letter: It is a letter reproduced and sent to many people by the extension work to publish an extension activity or to give timely information on farm and home problems.
13.Consequences: are the change that occur that occur to an individual, to a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.
14.Communication: Types of communication interaction between two individuals.
15.Compatibility: Is the degree to which an innovation is consistent with existing values and past experience of the adopters.
16.Compatibility: Is the degree to which an innovation is relatively difficult to understand and use.
17.Communication Gap: Difference between what was communicated by the extension agent and what has actually been received by the audience.
18.Demonstration: Is a sort of public manifestation emphasizing the salient merits, utility, efficiency of an article, product, idea, skill attitude, process and other tangible objects.
19.Diffusion: Is the process by which new idea are communicated to the members of a social system.
20.Diffusion process: Spread of new idea from sources of its invention or creation to its ultimate users or adopters.
21.Discontinuance: Is a decision to cease the use of an innovation after previously adopting it.
22.Disenchantment discontinuance: In which an innovation is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance.
23.Empathy: Putting oneself in another individuals place and feeling the other individual’s thoughts and emotions.
24.Feedback: Action- reaction interdependence in communication is referred to as feedback.
25.Farm and Home Visit: It is a face to face type of individual contact by the extension workers with the farmers and/ or other members of his family on the farmers farm or at his home for one or more specific purpose connected with extension.
26.Fidelity: It is the faithful performance of the communication activity by all of its elements, communicator, message and its treatment, channel and receiver.
27.Frame of reference: Each person has a stored experience of beliefs and values as an individual and also as a member of the society.
28.Group discussion: It is that from of discussion that occurs when two or more persons, recognizing a common problem exchange and evaluate information and ideas, in an effort to solve that problem.
29.Heterophily: The degrees to which Paris of individuals that interact are different in certain attributes, such as beliefs, values, education, social status and the like.
30.Homophily: The degrees to which Paris of individuals that interact are similar in attributes, such as beliefs, values, education, social status and the like.
31.Homestead technology: means a suitable technology to assist the homemaker in performing jobs inside the house and the adjoining courtyard in an efficient and effective manner.
32.Innovation: Is an ideas, practice or object perceived as new by an individuals or members of social system.
33.Innovation decision process: Is the mental process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to a decision to adopt or reject and to confirmation of this decision.
34.Innovators: are the first individuals in a social system to adopt new ideas.
35.Innovativeness: Is defined as the degree to which an individual is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the other members of his social system.
36.Mass communication: are all those means of transmitting message that involve a mass medium such as radio, which enables a source of one or a few individuals to reach an audience of many. Those means of transmitting messages that involve a mass medium such as radio, television, film, newspapers and the like.
37.Method demonstration: It is a relatively short time demonstration given before a group to show how to carry out an entirely new practice or an old practice in a better way.
38.Observability: It is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
39.Opinion leadership: Is the degree to which an individual is able to influence informally other individual’s attitude or overt behaviour in a desired way with relative frequency.
40.Over adoption: Sometime it may happen that people continue to adopt an innovation, rather vigorously when expert feel that it should not be so done.
41.Perception: An awareness or process of becoming aware of objective, events, condition, and relations that is internal or external to a person, as a result of a sensory stimulation.
42.Polymorphic opinion leadership: Is the degree to which an individual acts as an opinion leader for a variety of topics.
43.Monomorphic opinion leadership: Is the degree to which an individual acts as an opinion leader for only a single topic.
44.Poster: It is designed to make public announcement of a special idea. It usually includes little word with an illustration.
45.Predictability: The degree of certainty of receiving expected benefits from the adoption of an innovation.
46.Propaganda: Is deliberate manipulation of peoples beliefs, values and behaviour through words, gestures, image, thoughts and music etc.
47.Process: A procedure or series of step or events leading towards an end.
48.Radio: It is the transmission and reception of signals by means of electric waves without the use of connecting wires.
49.Reinvention: is defined as the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of its adoption and implementation.
50.Rate of adoption: is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.
51.Relative advantage: Is the degree to which an innovation is superior to the ideas it supersedes.
52.Result demonstration: It is a method of teaching designed to show by example the practical application of an established fact or group of related facts.
53.Specimen: Similar to objects but are usually considered part of an object preserved.
54.Tape recorder: It is a machine for recording sound on magnetic tape by electro-magnetic process. The main purpose is to capture original sound and preserve it for later use.
55.Treatment of massage: Treatment refers to the manner in which a message is handled to get the information across to an audience.
56.Trialability: The degree to which an innovation may be experimented on a limited basis.
57.Visual aid: Any instructional device that can be seen, but not seen, but not heard.
2)Shanon- Weaver model
6)Roger and Shoemaker model
Maharashtra Agricultural Universities Examination Board
Semester End Examination
B.Sc. (Hons.) Community Science
Semester: II (NEW) Academic Year: 2017-2018
Course No.: CECM 122
Course Title: Communication, Diffusion and Adoption of Homestead Technologies
Credits: 3 (1+2) Day & Date: Time: 2 hrs.
Total Marks: 40
Note:1) Solve ANY EIGHT questions from Section “A”
2) All questions from Section “B” are compulsory.
3) All questions carry equal marks.
4) Draw neat diagrams wherever necessary.
Q.1Explain barriers of communication according to nature of problems.
Q.2What are the advantages and limitations of group contact methods.
Q.3Differentiate between mass and interpersonal communication.
Q.4Discuss in brief about different elements of communication.
Q.5Discuss the attributes of innovation with special reference to homestead technologies.
Q.6Enlist and discuss adopter’s categories on the basis of innovativeness.
Q.7Define homestead technology. Discuss its classification on the basis of specific areas of the jobs.
Q. 8Short notes on (Any two).
a)Types of discontinuance.
b)Types of knowledge.
c)Qualities of change agent.
Q.9Define opinion leadership. Give the characteristics of opinion leaders.
Q.10Discuss the different types of consequences of adoption of innovation.
Q.11 Define the following terms.
c)Rate of adoption
Q.12 Match the pairs.
ii)Personal localiteb) Radio
iii)Mass contact methodc) Over Head Projector
iv)Personal cosmopolited) University’s scientist
1.Chole, R. R., Deshmukh, P. R. and Kapse, P. S., 2010. Transfer of agricultural technology. Scientific Publishers.
2.Dahama, O.P. and Bhatnagar, O.P. (1980). Education and Communication for Development. Oxford &IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
3.Dudhani, C.M.; Hirevenkatgoudar, L.V., Manjunath, L.; Hanchinal, S.N. and Patil, S.L. (2004). Extension Teaching Methods and Communication Technology, UAS, Dharwad.
4.Kamat, M.G. (1985). Writing for Farm Families. Allied Publishers, New Delhi.
5.Kelsey, L.D. and Hearne, G.C. (1963). Cooperative Extension Work, Comstar Publishing Associate, New York.
6.Mehta, D.S. (1981). Mass Communication and Journalism in India. Vikas Publication, New Delhi.
7.Ray, G.L. (1991). Extension Communication and Management. Noya Prakash, Calcutta.
8.Reddy, A.A (2005) Extension Education. Sri Lakshmi Press, Bapatla.
9.Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press, New Delhi.
10.Samanta, R.K. (1990). Development Communication for Agriculture. BR Publishing Corporation, Delhi.
11.Sandhu, A.S. (1993). Textbook on Agricultural Communication Process and Methods. Oxford and IBH Publishing Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
12.Singh, A.K., Lakhan Singh, R. and Roy Burman (2006). Dimensions of Agricultural Extension. Aman Publishing House, Meerut.
About the Author
Dr. Dhulgand V.G. Presently working as Assistant Professor, Department of Extension Education in Aditya College of Agriculture, Beed. He has completed Ph.D. Degree in Extension Education from Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani (M.S). He has published seventeen research papers in various NASS rated national and international journals. He has awarded with ICSSR fellowship in Ph.D. level.
Dr. Lad A.S. presently working as Assistant Professor, Department of Community Extension and Communication Management at College of Community Science, VNMKV, Parbhani. She has completed her Ph.D. in Extension Education at Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, VNMKV, Parbhani. She has sixteen research papers and ten popular articles at her credit and attended four National and two International seminars and conferences. A paper presented in International Conference at North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon has been judged as ‘The Best Paper. ‘She has awarded with ASPEE fellowship at M.Sc. and Ph.D. level. She has qualified NET of ICAR, New Delhi.
Dr. Deshmukh J.M. Presently working as Assistant Professor, Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Latur; VNMKV, Parbhani (M.S). She completed her Ph.D. Degree in Extension Education from M.P. K.V. Rahuri. She is having fourteen years of experience in Teaching, Research and Extension activities. She has published fifty one research papers and Abstracts in National and International journals and five popular articles in newspapers.