Enzootic bovine hematuria (EBH) is a serious condition that mainly affects cattle from 4 to 12-year-old managed in extensive systems based on pasture. Calves are usually not affected. There is no evidence of breed or sexual predisposition for the development of EBH (Seifi et al., 1995; Nielson & Moulton, 1990).
This syndrome is clinically characterized by the presence of hematuria, which can occur intermittently or continuously, accompanied by anemia (Divers et al., 2018).
Although BEH presented a worldwide distribution with variable prevalence, it has been mainly reported in tropical regions with less arable or non-cultivated lands (Vetter, 2009).
Since no curative treatment is currently available for BEH, affected cattle displayed a decrease in its performance, mainly characterized by emaciation, weight loss, and decrease milk yield (Giles & Andrews, 2008).
This syndrome is the clinical expression of tumors of epithelial and vascular origin present in the urinary bladder. The presence of the chemical compound, called Ptaquiloside, in bracken fern (Pteridium spp.), has been described as the main cause of the disease and the neoplastic lesions result from the carcinogenic property of this substance (Sharma et al., 2013). However, evidence suggests that urinary bladder neoplasia is enhanced with concomitant bovine papillomavirus-2 (BPV-2) infection in cattle (Resendes et al., 2011).